The increasing cost and scarcity of oil, gas, and
electricity has focused attention on the need for a transition
to renewable energy sources. Solar energy will play an
essential role in this effort, particularly for domestic and
commercial space heating (and cooling) and water heating.
This book is about the simplest type of solar water heaterthe integral passive solar water heater.
Solar systems for heating space or water can be divided
into two classes-passive and active systems. The essential
difference is that passive systems need no auxiliary power to
operate while active systems are dependent on externally
driven fans or pumps.
Passive solar systems typically are very simple, low in
cost, built with readily available building materials, reliable,
durable, and cost-effective. Many passive systems have only
one moving part-the sun-which in large part accounts for
This manual is intended to serve as a basic introductory text book and to
provide instruction and guidance to field personnel engaged in the construction, operation and maintenance of small diameter, relatively shallow wells
used primarily for individual and small community water supplies.
it is aimed particularly at those persons who have had little or no
experience in the subject. An attempt has been made to treat the subject
matter as simply as possible in order that this manual may bF: of benefit not
only to the engineer or other technically trained individual (inexperienced in
this field) but also the individual home owner, farmer or non-technically
trained community development officer. This manual should also prove
useful in the training of water well drillers, providing the complementary
background material for their field experience. The reader who is interested
in pursuing the subject further, and with reference to larger and deeper wells,
is referred to the list of references to be found at the end of this manual