An excellent knowledge base in soil and water chemistry -the ideal basic text for students of the environmental sciences
In Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry, leading soil and water authority V. P. Evangelou presents a complete overview of the principles and applications of soil science, addressing the subject by viewing the interactions between soil and water as a basis for understanding the nature, extent, and treatment of polluted soil and water. The text opens with a discussion of principles-the fundamental tenets of chemistry needed to understand soil and water quality and treatment of polluted resources-and continues with a look at applications for the control and treatment of soil and water. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students, this extensive, timely volume covers:
* Water chemistry and mineral solubility; soil minerals and surface chemical properties and their behavior; and electrochemistry and kinetics
* The control of agricultural chemical pollution and land disturbance pollution; colloids and transport processes in soils; and technologies for measuring quality and executing treatment
* Specific chemical contaminants and the procedures for their neutralization
In a world where chemical pollutants pose a grave threat to the earth’s natural resources, Environmental Soil and Water Chemistry offers students both an excellent textbook and a handy reference on the wide spectrum of environmental problems they will confront outside the classroom.
Heats of reaction are among the fundamental quantities of thermochemistry.
Since, to a first approximation, the heats of reaction are
energy differences between molecular systems, one would think that
their quantum-chemical evaluation should be a rather straightforward
matter. After all, ever since its inception in the late 1920s, quantum
chemistry has been concerned with the accurate calculation of total energies,
building up a large body of expertise and experience on the accurate
and efficient calculation of total molecular electronic energies Nevertheless, in spite of all these efforts, it has proved exceedingly difficult
to compute the necessary quantities (i.e., total electronic energies) to
a target accuracy of better than 1 kJ/mol, which is the typical accuracy
of experimental measurements of heats of formation. In this chapter, we
examine the ab initio calculation of atomization energies (AEs) of gasphase
molecules, from which the heats of gas-phase reactions between
the same molecules can be easily obtained. Our purpose is not only to
illustrate the inherent difficulties associated with the accurate calculation
of AEs, but also to describe the considerable progress that has been
achieved over the last few years and the perspectives for the near future.
Environmental chemistry is a new, fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. This book describes the state-of-the-art advances regarding the pollution of water, soils, atmosphere, food and living organisms by toxic metals, fossil fuels, pesticides and other organic pollutants. Furthermore, the eco-toxicology section presents novel bio-assays to assess the toxicity of various pollutants such as dioxins and endocrine disrupters within complex media. The green chemistry section highlights novel chemical reactions based upon environmentally friendly conditions. The analytical chemistry section describes very sensitive methods which trace the fate of pollutants in complex ecosystems.