Living the Country Lifestyle All-in-One For Dummies features six books in one, including:
Country Cooking (cast-iron cooking, canning, pickling, and outdoor cooking, among other topics)
Traditional Crafts (sheering animals and producing wool, knitting, hand sewing, patchwork and quilting, candle making)
Kitchen Gardening (growing and caring for vegetables, herbs, and fruit)
Outdoor Skills (camp skills, fishing, navigation, outdoor family fun)
Raising Farm Animals (buying, housing, and raising animals, beekeeping)
Natural Health (herbal remedies, an encyclopedia of herbs, and healing foods)
soapmaking was a symbol of self – those that took pride in made their own soap War II, when animal fat was used ts crcial stmp was in short su in displayed their in the& old recipes and revived soap and candler, this time on modern now we have come full circle. The new h~mesteaders~ many of whom commute to town but work ake a smalt ptot of land self-supporting, are making and candles – converting waste animal fat into useful products. Others who live io ;own but share the same concern for the land, prefer the old soaps to the newer phosphate ts. Still others find pleasure in preserving these homesteader, animal fat was an important t of butchering. He raised his own meat and butchered it himself, saving every scrap of the animal for home use. The meat was dried and cured and canned. The hide was tanned. The head and intestines were saved for sausage. The fat was used for cooking and, just asimportant, hr making soap and candles. Today’s homesteader may raise his own meat, but he usually has it butchered and packaged at the !ocal meat4
6. locker and doesn”t realize how much of the animal is being’ wasted. From even a small, fairly lean calf a butcher trims and disca& je to 1~ pounds of fat, *-AL-C. -*.nId haWIIILII L”“.” Uk rendered into a pure white, hard tallow. Larger, fatter animals will provide even more. This tallow can be converted into enough soap to last a family until the next butchering time. It also may be used to make candles. We’ve included recipes fot both. In addition to tallow, leftover kitchen grease which is unfit for anything else can be used for soap-making. Different kinds of fats may be mixed, and even sttong- smelling or rancid grease will make perfectly good, sweet- smelling soap. Candles require clean, hard fat – preferably beef tallow which produces a harder, cleaner-smelling candle. Properly made homemade candles have no offensive odor. Many of the enclosed recipes are more than a century old and a few date back more than 200 years. To preserve
7. their character we have retained the original wording as much as possible. Some of the methods no longer may be practical, and a fw of the ww=Gnachaye1r;rrp.z ban inr!gded as oddities.M-B.. Wherever possible, we have clarified terms and simplified methods, but some of the ingredients no longer may be available, and you may find it necessary to make substitutions or improvise methods in some cases. For practicality, a few modern recipes such as Simple Kitchen Soap and Boiled Kitchen Soap have been included. soap is o&c of the few ways erally ean~“makesomethin is a thrifty way to make product of meat. Ir can be one’s personal contribution toward cleaning out polluted waters by eliminating one major source of the phosphate from today’s detergents. With a few simple kitche:i tools, ingredients you probably already have un hand and a few hours’ work, you can make a month’s supply of cleaning soap. It’s a good idea to make soap once or tw’ice a year because soap, like wine, improves with age. / The simplest and chespest type is plain yellow laundry soap, the kind that made Grandmother’s sheets so sparkling white. But with the addstion of a few inexpensive ingredients you can create fine toilet soaps too.
8. ients are used to make soap clean ter or to perfume the product. Most rocery or drug stores. A few, such asthe essences and oils used in scented toilet soaps, can be pet&cd in hnhhw &~pc whirh rarru crrnnlimc fnr making — — —u-z w -w—w– WM.. p ewrT..w’ .-. soaps and candles. Powdered borax is sold in grocery stores as a water softener. Potash lye is on the same shelf labeled “drain cleaner”. Quick lime or ground limestone may be found in garden supply shops. Most drug stores carry resin or will order it for you. The instru~tionsaresimple. Most of the in readily available. It% even possible CAUTION!!! Commercial lyes, potash iye and soda lye – even dampened wood ashes – are EXTREMELY caustic and can cause burns if splashed on the skin. They could cause blindness if spattered in the eye. Use caution when adding lye to cold water, when lye water and when pouring the liquid soap into If it is spilled on the skin, wash off immediately with cold water. Wash off any lyeor green (uncured) soap spilled on furniture or counter tops. h some of the old recipes didn’t say so, always add lye to COLD water, never to hot water@because the
9. 8 chemical action heats the cold water h fumes which are ck and avert the e use of a draft vent i se of these dangers, it is best to keep small children from the roor3 whiie so is being made. in smaller quantiti A kitchen grater or a meat ke soap flakes for laundry use or ta f the later recipes. thes used flat wooden boxes or
10. ttles wark just as well and are much cheaper. – Same recipe call for a plate on which to cod of the liquid from time to time to test for randmother preferred a glass plate because it coded the liquid faster. rnE There are only three ingredients in piain soap – animal fat, INGREDIENTS lye and water. Any other in redients are ts improve the the soap skin-softening qualities or nts can be sbtained free if ad of money. Unwanted king at butcher shops or hat you want it for. A few hours over low heat (wood for an out&w fire often is free for the chopping) and you have all the fat needed for a year’s supply sf soap. And save the ashes from that fire. You’ll need them to make the lye – also free. For recipes that call far soft water
11. rain ~ater~~herni~al~~ s~ft~n@d water or borax added to tap wa?er. TO PREPARE Cut up beef suet, mutton tallow or pork scraps and fry over TALLOW OR GREASE grease through a coarse ctoth as possible out of the scraps. If it was made for this step. at by boiling it in water to which alum has been added. Add twice as 0 minutes. Stir thoroughly and cold it will have formed a hard of fat and serape wn aceordin TO MAKE POTASH allon barrel or tub (only wood wilt do) with a faucet LYE FROM ASHES bottom, and makea filter insidearound the mouth of the faucet with several bricks or stones covered with straw. fill the tub with wood ashes. Ashes from oak wood st lye and those from apple wood make When the tub is full pour boilin water over the ashes until water ns to run from the ucet. Then shut the faucet and I ashes soak. As they settle, add more ashes until the tub is full a tands before being drawn off the Ebe. Usually a few ho will beenough. 10 lye need nst always the same, since I
12. 11 ali will unite only with a certain d more lye can be added until all the fat that will float a fresh e is standard g barrel or do not want that large a quantity, you may use a porcelain-covered or plastic pail. Fill the pail with ashes and add boili the ashes. The ashes will settle to I water, stirring to wet ban one-fourth their original volume. Add ashes to the top of the pail, stir again and let stand for 12 to 24 hours, or until the liquid is clear. Then carefully urb dip or siphon off the clear liquid. LyeB lye Water, Potash Lye (ssmetimes termed Caustic Potasb Lye) – are made from steeped (slaked) wood ashes and are interchangable terms. Qsometimes call Caustic Potash) – is lye water to a powder. Lime [or Stone Lim – is lime that has been baked. is quicklime slaked in water and heated with sz4soda. Sal Soda – sodium carbonate. Caustic Soda – lye evaporated ts a powder. Commercial Lye – usually is the same as caustic soda and is the equivalent of Yyerr in most recipes.
13. POTASH TO MAKE SODA LYE COMArlERCIAl LYE THE METHODS made by boiling down the lye water in a le. After the water is driven off there will ry residue which is known as “black salts”. maintained until this is melted, when the black impurities wiii be burned away and a grayish-white SGbStiZiCX**iii remain . This is pctarh. Save what you don’t use for the next time you make soap. 1 quart of quicklime with 3 quarts water, whieh will e the lime to the consistency of cream. Dissolve 3 ater. Add the slaked tureat a boil until the n pour off the ttsm. Caustic soda y boiling down the lye until the water is evaporated, and a dry residue is left in the kettle. Most eommereial lyes are caustic soda. CBne can of commercial lye may be substituted for the one pound of lye for in most of the follov& To make any soap it is necessary to dilute lye, then mix it with fat or oil and stir until saponification takes place, Saponification is the chemical reaction by which the ients – lye water andfat – are converted into one substance – soap.
14. c 13 , ified when they are thick and y texture. They do not harden and are ready to use at this stage. Uncooked.hard soaps are rea y to be poured into molds when the emulsion has thickened to the consistency of honey. Boiled hard soaps have saponified when the mixture is thick and r~py and slides off the spoon. if lye water and fat are mixed when they are cold, the ay require several days or even pan the strength and purity of the emperature is raised to 212 degrees, ificatisn will take place in a few These are the two meths products, soft soap and hard soap. SOFT SOAP COLD One of the simplest of the old, traditional recipes for PROCESS homemade soap calls for 12 pounds of fat, 9 pounds of potash and 12 gallons of water. Put the fat in a tight cask or barrel and add the potash which has been dissolved in 3 gallons af water. Once a day for the next 3 days add 3 gallons boiling water and stir orously for about 3 minutes* With a long stick or paddle kept in the mixture stir it several times a day.
A Nature-Friendly Way to Attract and House Birds
Birdhouses are a favorite project among woodworkers. Made of inexpensive materials, they are quick to build and a pleasure for the whole neighborhood. Easy to Build Birdhouses includes 26 fun projects for woodworkers of all skill levels.
Part 1 talks about construction basics, wood grain, doors and access, proper drainage and ventilation, interiors, materials and hardware, paint and stain, and house mounting and support methods. It also addresses birdhouse placement and how to attract birds.
Part 2 shows how to make birdhouses using natural materials to help them blend in with their surroundings.
Part 3 shows how to make bird feeders that help attract birds.
Part 4 provides examples of colorful and whimsical birdhouses, like a lighthouse and a Cape Cod bungalow, that are a little more advanced.