Walter Lippmann -American journalist
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Walter Lippmann, (born Sept. 23, 1889, New York City—died Dec. 14, 1974, New York City), American newspaper commentator and author who in a 60-year career made himself one of the most widely respected political columnists in the world.
While studying at Harvard (B.A., 1909), Lippmann was influenced by the philosophers William James and George Santayana. He helped to found (1914) The New Republic and served as its assistant editor under Herbert David Croly. Through his writings in that liberal weekly and through direct consultation, he influenced Pres. Woodrow Wilson, who is said to have drawn on Lippmann’s ideas for the post-World War I settlement plan (Fourteen Points) and for the concept of the League of Nations. Lippmann was briefly (1917) an assistant to Secretary of War Newton D. Baker. Wilson sent him to take part in the negotiations for the Treaty of Versailles (1919).
After writing editorials (1921–29) for the reformist World, Lippmann served as its editor (1929–31) and then moved to the New York Herald Tribune. On Sept. 8, 1931, his column, “Today and Tomorrow,” first appeared; eventually, it was syndicated in more than 250 newspapers in the United States and about 25 other nations and won two Pulitzer Prizes (1958, 1962). In preparing his commentaries, he traveled throughout the world. His first book, A Preface to Politics (1913), was mildly socialistic, but Drift and Mastery (1914) was anti-Marxist, and in The Good Society (1937) he repudiated socialism entirely. During World War II he warned against a postwar return of the United States to an isolationist policy. Essays in the Public Philosophy (1955) evoked some criticism for its natural-law theory.
In perhaps his most influential book, Public Opinion (1922; reissued 1956; paperback ed., 1965), Lippmann seemed to imply that ordinary citizens can no longer judge public issues rationally, since the speed and condensation required in the mass media tend to produce slogans rather than interpretations. In The Phantom Public (1925) he again treated the problem of communication in politics; while continuing to doubt the possibility of a true democracy, he nonetheless rejected government by an elite.